УДК 614.841.2 DOI: 10.37657/vniipo.pb.2021.64.34.004
I.R. Khasanov, S.A. Zuev, A.A. Abashkin, A.S. Zueva
Assessment of safe fire distances from afforestation to buildings and structures
The requirements for fire breaks in the Russian Federation are regulated by the regulatory requirements for fire safety. Most of the calculated methods of fire breaks between the objects of protection are based on the value determination of the heat flow transmitted from fire at one of the objects to the combustible materials of the neighbor object. The possibility of calculating the values of fire breaks between buildings and structures is provided in the «Methodology for calculating fire breaks between buildings and structures» (Appendix A of the set of rules SP 4.13130.2013). There are no regulatory requirements for calculating fire distances from forest area to buildings and structures. The relevance of such requirements is due to the development of mass construction in the territories located in the zones of possible spread of forest and other landscape fires.
The analysis of the regulatory requirements for fire breaks from buildings and structures to the boundaries of forest area showed that the basic principles for justifying the values of fire distances are related to the types of forest area and the characteristics of the buildings and structures of settlements (fire resistance of buildings, fire hazard of structural elements, etc.). Calculations of fire breaks from forest area to buildings and structures have special features so, when choosing a fire scenario, the main mechanisms of heat transfer, the type of forest vegetation and the type of fire – riding, grassroots or underground – must be taken into account.
To apply the provisions of the «Methodology for calculating fire-fighting gaps between buildings and structures» (Annex A of the Set of Rules SP 4.13130.2013) for assessment of fire distances from buildings and structures to the forest area there was developed a set of recommendations and there was given an example of calculation on a specific object. At the same time, the most unfavourable fire scenarios were selected. The calculated dependences of the heat radiation intensity on the distance in case of fire in a residential building and at a forest fire are obtained. Based on the calculation results there were determined the necessary initial data for the development of compensating fire-fighting measures to eliminate the possibility of forest fire spreading to the buildings and structures of the object.
Keywords: forest fires, thermal flow, fire breaks, heat release, fire safety requirements, flammable materials
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Received March 3, 2021
Irek R. Khasanov – Doctor of Technical Sciences, Main Researcher. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
Stanislav A. Zuev – Candidate of Technical Sciences, Leading Researcher. E-mail: K708@yandex.ru;
Alexander A. Abashkin – Deputy Head of Department;
Anna S. Zueva – Researcher.
All-Russian Research Institute for Fire Protection (VNIIPO), the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM of Russia), Balashikha, Moscow region, Russia.